旋转数控激光雕刻机

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简介:旋转数控激光雕刻箱

我创建了一个有吸入的激光雕刻雕刻器Mashine,我的教师提供的设备。因为我真的很高兴我想要分享这个过程和最终创作的结果。

该设备的基本原理是非常不可取的。它使用两个齿轮的两个旋转运动来而不是标准的X-Y CNC机器编程而设计。为此工作,必须应用适当的运动转换,使得设备的内部坐标相应地将电机移动到“世界”坐标。然后,只能在XY坐标中标准编程用于准备雕刻雕刻的矢量图像,例如Cadtomotion等。运动转换,确保适当的变换并应用于这种类型的设备,主要用于编程Scara机器人。

Mechanism uses two rotational movements; the first rotational axis moves the workpiece and the second axis moves the laser light source in the transverse direction. Although the motions along both axes are rotational and consequently nonlinear, the movement of the mechanism is in external coordinates, ie the Cartesian coordinate system and it's performed with the help of kinematic transformation. Generation of motion trajectories, positional control of both servomotors and real-time calculation of kinematic transformation is performed with an industrial motion controller TRIO.

在规划机构设计时,原则是:简单,创新,高效且易于制造。两个轴线是相同的,并且基于具有200mm的直径为200mm的旋转板(M = 0.3)的旋转板制成,其由第二齿轮由伺服电动机驱动。为了减少游戏和摩擦的不期望的效果,驱动马达可移动地安装,并且齿轮之间的所需接触力由螺旋弹簧压力确定。

第1步:零件和功能

Motors

I used two DC servomotors from the manufacturer ESCAP type D2R 11 219P B 100Y. These are high-dynamic DC motors with permanent magnets and a rotor without an iron core. The motor operates in a closed loop system through which it receives information about the actual position by an encoder. The motors are connected to the output of a servo amplifier with 12 V power supply and their rated power is 15 W. The motors have a gear mounted on the shaft with a module m = 0.3 and have 19 teeth, which allows the transfer of power from the motor to a larger gear. An optical incremental encoder with 100 pulses per revolution is mounted on the motor shaft, through which the measurement of speed and position was performed.

运动控制器

工业运动控制器用于控制伺服电机,我们通过运动完美软件工具中的个人计算机进行通信。控制器具有模拟和数字输入和输出。以太网连接,电机(与电源初步连接),激光(带独立的5V电源)都连接到控制器。

激光

The laser is connected to a switching power supply with an output voltage of 5V and a switching circuit is added, which switches on the laser beam with a signal from the digital output of the controller. The power of the laser is 1W and it's wavelength is 405nm, which belongs to the visible spectrum of light and is perceived as the blue-purple color of the beam. Firstly the optimal focal length must be set, because only then the beam engraves the perfect line.

齿轮

使用直径为206毫米和厚度为3mm的两个齿轮被从名为外汇的轻质材料中使用。附接到结构的上部的齿轮具有624齿,下部的第二个具有629齿。激光连接到上齿轮和工作表面到下档。当齿轮旋转时,激光雕刻在工件上。

轴承

使用四个Igus聚合物法兰平原轴承,使用FM-0608-08型。用它们,我将两个大型齿轮和两个铝支架用于伺服电动机。我使用了这些轴承,因为它们更容易安装并且与经典球轴承相媲美。而且,这些轴承减少了装置本身的重量。

电动机支架

I designed two aluminum brackets for the motor. On one side there are holes for attaching the motor and on the other the bracket is mounted and attached to the housing. This method allows the motor to be pressed against the gear by a spring, which helps to effectively adjust the motor gear to any tolerances of the large gear. As a result, the teeth do not jump over each other and the wear of the gears is reduced.

第2步:施工刨花

左图显示设备如何运行和移动。起初有点难以想象,但是这种机制可以被想象成萨马机器人,其中机器人的第一臂是齿轮中心和第二连杆的中心或机器人的臂,是距离轴的距离到激光。当以这种方式想象,我们可以使用横跨跨频化,使得运动控制器可以在“世界”IE中移动电机。x-y坐标。

我使用SolidWorks来模拟设备。非常重要的是,齿轮中心之间的距离等于齿轮直径除以2,因为只有在这种情况下,它只能为激光提供最大的面积。

Step 3: Construction

从10毫米厚的丙烯酸玻璃板,三个矩形被切割。两个矩形措施:140x90 mm,143x120 mm。

然后,根据文档,在所有三个矩形部件中制造螺钉的孔和螺纹。部件用螺钉拧在一起,电机和齿轮都用螺钉固定在基本结构上。

When the housing was completed, two identical circular disks with a diameter of 206 mm were cut out of Forex, which are the basis for making gears. This material is very soft, so Iused a simple (and in this case effective) method of making the teeth of the gear - with pressure I imprinted the gear teeth by carefully sliding the motor gear around the Forex disks. At the end both gears are reinforced in the center with glued plates made of harder acrylic glass and mounted with sliding bearings.

第4步:建设完成

最后的步骤是附着激光器,它的电缆贴在齿轮的中心,不要妨碍运动。

On the two aluminum plates, which serve as the brackets of each of the motors, are drilled the corresponding holes to which the motor is attached and one hole on each so that the plates are mounted and attached to the housing. Two compression springs push the motors with a small sprocket towards the large gear in order to keep good teeth connection as much as possible.

第5步:初始化程序

我在运动完美4.4中写了代码。主要功能是框架,可以在斯卡拉机器人的情况下定义和调整任何运动转换。

逐步逐步

•通过上方的程序,参考位置使用DAC功能在电动机上带来,只有足够的电压导致它移动。
•在这个运动中,两个元素the gears block further movement causing the gears to stop moving always at the same point, thus defining the reference position.

"SERVO" mode is switched off, which means that the motor will not increase the torque in the end position to withstand the load or there could be some serius damage done to housing and motors.

•现在可以使用defpos命令定义参考位置。在此位置,“机器人”的虚拟手动矫直 - 这是框架变换的要求之一。

拉直位置意味着Scara机器人的臂完全垂直。从这一点开始,我们搬到了工作岗位。

• The last part of the program determines the parameters for the FRAME command. The first two parameters are the length of the robot's arms or in our case the radius of the gears.

The next two are the accuracy of the rotation angle in radians, which is determined by the ratio of the number of teeth on the large gear and the gear on the motor and further multiplied by 4 to compensate for pulse values of the incremental encoder resolution (eg: (400 * 624/19) / 2 * PI). 2 * pi is used to obtain the value in radians.

•最后可定义的参数是确定第二电动机的位置。我选择选择电机是否位于“机器人”的第一个关节或底部,在那里静止。在实验和一些反射之后,我发现,为了使装置能够正常工作,适当的解决方案是定义第二电动机位置在Scara机器人的两个“臂”的关节中。

•我将所有这些参数插入到定义整个帧命令的表中,并使用帧= 1激活它。

Step 6: Preparing Image for Engraving

我在Adobe Illustrator中绘制了一些快速对象,并以.dxf格式导出。

When I exported the image, I transferred it to the CAD2Motion program, where I firstly turned the image correctly, as our coordinate system is rotated (y -x) compared to the coordinate system (x y) in the program, this is because I wanted to engrave the image rotated to the front of the device.

程序的最后一步是调整整个图像的大小,以便它可以适合小瓦片。

Before the program could be copied I had to determine the speeds of working and free movements and acceleration/decelerations. These could then be added to the start of each sequence(for individual forms and shapes of an image). Then I generated the code (programing language: Basic) from the Cad2Motion software and pasted it in the main program which now consists of different sequences. Example of one of the sequences is in displayed above.

第7步:最终结果

当设备最终工作时,它几乎完美地工作。唯一要调整的是PID调节器的参数,因为如上所述所见,激光器没有绘制一个非常平滑的线,而是一个相当“摇摇欲坠”的线。

在调整调节器的所有参数之后,机制就像梦一样,最好的部分最终可能最终开始。

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    6评论

    0
    Ferreiran.

    2 days ago

    一个令人难以置信的想法!
    祝贺你的创造力!
    我希望我能收到两次!

    1
    nik_senekovic.

    回复2 days ago

    Thanks, it means a lot.

    0
    masoud256.

    2 days ago

    It's Amazing!
    感谢分享。

    0
    nik_senekovic.

    回复2 days ago

    Thanks, my pleasure.

    我可以说两个相交的圈子只是辉煌!
    谢谢!
    :-)

    0
    nik_senekovic.

    回复3天前

    先生非常感谢您。我希望它激发了一些想法。